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A to Z of Fabrics
  • Acrylic fibre - an artificial fibre containing nitrile
  • Basic dyes - these contain basic amino group and their use is in natural cellulosic fibres in an alkaline dye bath
  • Bath - a basic solution, where a chemical process is carried out
  • Basket weave - also called a matt weave
  • Blanket - a heavy fabric having a raised finish
  • Blending - the term means mixing of different fibres in a specified proportion so as to get advantages in the end result accruing from the properties of the blended fabrics
  • Bleaching - a chemical process undertaken for improving the whiteness of a fabric, yarn or a fibre (retaining the natural colour)
  • Bleeding - when a fabric looses its colour when in contact with a solvent, it is called bleeding
  • Blinding - occurs when you remove the lustre of textiles
  • Blind stitch - an invisible stitch on the fabric face or a garment
  • Boucle (booclay) yarn - a yarn which has tight loops formed across its length
  • Brighteners - these are chemical constituents which when added to detergents increase the brightness of a fabric
  • Brocade - used extensively for silk saris, this fabric has very exquisite effects by using satin weaves against a plain weave background
  • Brushing - the end result of this finishing process is a raised effect, it involves passing the fabric over two or more brushes
  • Contemporary - currently in vogue
  • Cool Colours - blue, violet and green are considered cool colours
  • Calico - a plain weave cotton fabric having a medium cover factor
  • Chambray - a light net, plain weave of cotton, a blend of synthetic yarns
  • Checks - a pattern made of squares
  • Cavalry twill - a warp-faced fabric having double twill lines separated by grooves and is a heavy weight fabric
  • Colour fastness - the property of which the dyed material has resistance against bleeding on washed or exposed to light and gas
  • Combed yarn - the yarn whose slivers have been carded and combed
  • Composite yarn - this yarn made of both staple and filament fibres
  • Cord - a general term used for a) plied b) cabled yarns and structures made by braiding , knitting or weaving
  • Corduroy - a cut pile having cords or ribs in the warp direction e.g. cut velveteen fabrics
  • Cotton - natural vegetable fibre obtained from seed hair of plants of the gossipyum family
  • Curing - the procedure of setting of resin or plastic
  • Count - a ratio of the yarn or a fibre's weight to it's length
  • Count of cloth - the number of picks per inch/cm and ends per inch/cm in the cloth
  • Direct dyes - dyes made of vegetable fibres
  • Disperse dyes - dyes used only for synthetics e.g. polyester
  • Drill - a twill weave, piece dyed fabric, usually made in 0.7m width
  • Discharge (printing) - a method employed in printing where by applying a chemical substance on the specific areas of a dyed fabric, the dye gets removed or discharged leaving behind a coloured or white pattern
  • Dupion - a fabric woven from imitation silk (artificial fibre)
  • Elastic fabric - a fabric having extensible properties like lycra
  • Embossing - a method to get a raised feel or depressed feel of the fabric by passing it through heated
  • Embroidery - a method where a decorative patterns was sewn by handle through a needle or by a sewing machine but more latterly by computerised control of multi head embroidery stations
  • Embroidery lace - embroidery done on lace material
  • Fabric - term used to address all materials whether they may be made of fibres, yarns, lace, etc
  • Fastness - It is the resistance which a material provides to an agent
  • Filament - an artificial lengthy and continuous fibre
  • Finishing - treatment given to a fabric to improve its look and texture properties
  • Forte of a garment - the strong point of the garment
  • Fray - when handling some fabrics, the threads which come out are called fray
  • Gaberdine - Worsted fabric with a prominent twill face
  • Georgette - crepe fine fabric with alternate twisted tarn
  • Fad - short term fashion (trends) are called fads
  • Grain - a synonym for the length wise (weft yarn) or cross-wise (warp yarn) threads of the fabric
  • Hosiery - knitted articles
  • Haute Couture - high-fashion garments
  • Hue - shades and degrees of colour
  • Imitation velvet - plain weave with small tufts or fibres which are joined by an adhesive
  • Interlining - woven or non woven fabric layer between outer cloth wall and the inner to give it an insulation and shape
  • Jacquard - a weaving machine which produces very intricate designs as it can control each warp yarn
  • Jersey - plain knit fabric
  • Lace - open work fabric
  • Lustre - gloss of textiles
  • Non woven - fabric from a web of fibres held together by various methods other than felting, colouring, or intertwining
  • Polyamide - polymerised product of alcohols and acids
  • Poplin - plain weave fabric with ribbed effect
  • Press mark - undesirable shinning lines on the right side of the garment due to incorrect ironing
  • Pucker - to draw up into folds or wrinkles
  • Raw silk - silk which comes directly from cocoon with a little twist in the thread
  • Screenprinting - a method of decoration where either water based or plastisol ink is forced through differing sizes of silk mesh to leave one or many colours either in (water based) or on (plastisol) the fabric of the garment
  • Seam Line - the line which shows where the seam should be stitched
  • Silhouette - it's an outline of a garment
  • Spun silk - silk yarn from short a short filament
  • Suede cloth - a finish which resembles chamois leather
  • Staple - the average length of a fibre
  • Surface Decoration Ornamenting - the surface of a fabric or garment (e.g. embroidery)
  • Tafetta - plain closely woven filament fabric
  • Tapestry - yarn dyed figured fabrics in jacquard loom
  • Taper - to decrease width gradually and bring it to an end point
  • Thread Count - the number of warp and weft yarns in one square-inch of a fabric (warp yarn x weft yarn per sq. inch)
  • Trend - fashion is not static, they are constantly moving, their movement has a definite direction, the direction in which fashion moves is called a fashion trend
  • Trim - to cut off the ragged edges below the seam line to prevent the garment from being bulky and to give the seam a neat finish
  • Tweed - a rough fabric of wiry heavy wools invented by the English
  • Twill weave - weft interlaced with warp to form diagonal ridges in fabric
  • Velour - a cut pile fabric heavier than velvet, longer piles with fine raised finish of cotton/woollen
  • Warm colours - colours like red, orange, yellow are classified as warm colours
  • Worsted fabric - a fabric manufactured wholly from worsted yarns the exception being presence of some decoration threads of other fibres
  • Yarn - a product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section consisting of fibres and/or filament(s)